Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Development Theories

Erik Erikson elaborated Freud's genital stage  in adolescence, and added three stages of adulthood (William, 2011). The eight stages according to Mcleod are: Trust Versus Mistrust (birth – 1 year), Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2 – 3 years), Initiative vs. Guilt (3 – 5 years), Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority (6 – 12 years), Identity vs. Role Confusion (13 – 18 years), Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood), Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) and Ego Integrity vs. Despair (old age). I am going to discuss the first two.At infancy, children learn to trust or/and mistrust people and environment. I still have family members I am uncomfortable being around because they use to tickle me as a child. Now there is always a sense of mistrust when I am around them. As toddlers, (18 months-3 years) take pride in self and learn to face fears or self-doubt. This is the stage where we gain sphincter control and begin potty training. If our car egivers are overly critical or impatient, or if they demean our efforts, we develop feelings of shame and doubt.After my mum showed me a few times how to go potty, I would tell her I did not want her in the toilet and I could do it myself. This gave me a sense of autonomy and self-esteem. For Erikson, psychosocial development involves certain crises which the individual must face at each stage. Reference McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Stages. Retrieved from  http://www. simplypsychology. org/Erik-Erikson. html#sthash. dBmFr2FJ. dpbs Crain, William (2011). Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications (6th ed. ).

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Origin and Meaning of the Surname, Long

Long is the  86th most popular surname  in the United States with origins in  English,  Irish, and Chinese. The most common alternate surname spellings include Longe, Lang, Delong, and Laing. Learn about the famous Longs, genealogy resources and the three main plausible origins for the common last name below. Possible Surname Origins Long was most commonly a  nickname that was often given to a man who was especially tall and lanky, from the  Old English lang  and  Old French long, meaning  long or tall.The Long surname may also be a  reduced Anglicized form of Gaelic name Ó Longà ¡in, meaning descendant of Longà ¡n, a personal name probably derived from long, meaning tall.If the family is Chinese, the name may indicate descent from  an official treasurer called Long, who lived during the reign of the model emperor Shun (2257–2205 BC). Notable Longs Nia Long:  American actress who is  best known as her characters on The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air and Third Watch on TV. She was also in the popular movies Friday and Too Deep.Howie Long:  Former American NFL defensive end. Howie currently works at Fox Sports as a studio analyst.Shelley Long:  Actress popular on the comedy television shows Cheers and Frasier. She has five Emmy nominations and two Golden Globe Awards.Shorty Long: American soul singer, record producer, and musician who was inducted into the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame. Genealogy Resources 100 Most Common U.S. Surnames Their Meanings: Smith, Johnson, Williams, Jones, Brown... Are you one of the millions of Americans sporting one of these top 100 common last names from the 2000 census?Long Family Genealogy Forum: Search this popular genealogy forum for the Long surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Long query.FamilySearch - Long  Genealogy: Find records, queries, and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Long surname and its variations.Long  Surname Family Mailing Lists: RootsWeb hosts several free mailing lists for researchers of the Long surname.Cousin Connect - Long  Genealogy Queries: Read or post genealogy queries for the surname Long, and sign up for free notification when new Long queries are - Long  Genealogy Family History: Free databases and genealogy links for the last name Long. Resources and Further Reading Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967.Menk, Lars. A Dictionary of German-Jewish Surnames. Avotaynu, 2005.Beider, Alexander. A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from Galicia. Avotaynu, 2004.Hanks, Patrick, and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989.Hanks, Patrick. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003.Smith, Elsdon C. American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.

Sunday, December 29, 2019

The Development And Testing Of An Intermediate Concept...

Ability of Children to Identify Bad Choices and Justifications Kent S. Michael The University of Alabama Introduction Stephen Thoma, W. Pitt Derryberry, and H. Michael Crowson published an article (2013) outlining the development and testing of an intermediate concept measure (ICM) of moral reasoning on an adolescent population, and one of the unexpected findings was the difficulty of research participants to accurately identify bad choices and justifications (Thoma et al., 2013). It is important to note that an analogous pattern was found in a previous study utilizing the ICM with young adults in their last year of dental school (Bebeau Thoma, 1999). To the author’s knowledge, a similar study has not been conducted on a younger segment of the population. The purpose of this proposal is to assess whether children aged 9-11 also struggle when identifying bad choices and justifications. Literature Review Moral Reasoning A brief overview of the history of moral psychology in the Kohlbergian tradition is necessary to understand the significance and need for the current proposal. Jean Piaget presented his construct of moral reasoning in his theory of development, and he found there were two stages of moral reasoning—heterenomous and autonomous. The former is associated with Piaget’s concrete operational stage as moral reasoning is dependent upon the relational context of the child and authority figures (parents, God, etc.) and is inductive by nature. The latter isShow MoreRelatedThe Drug Development And Approval Process1210 Words   |  5 Pagesthe required Krishna (2008) article, the drug development and approval process is an extensive and costly endeavor. 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This shall also enhanceRead MorePersonality And Employee Job Performance1277 Words   |  6 Pagesthe personality testing, such as Myer Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), being used widely by organisations in pre-employment, the relationship between personality and job performance seems stronger, comparing to the MARS Model era. In accordance with Penny et al.’s research (2011), however, the relationship between personality and performance is complicated. 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A typical day for Ms. WellensiekRead MoreThe Use Of Juvenile Diabetes And Its Effects On Our Lives As Well As Their Interpersonal Relationships1426 Words   |  6 Pagesinterpersonal relationships. Type 1 diabetes affects all types of child ren from various backgrounds. There are risk factors involved, current investigations into treatment taking place, new technologies being developed, and education on preventative measures being taught. The nurse plays an important role in this education process, and refers patients to helpful community resources. Affect On Interpersonal Relationships The relationship with family and friends molds the behavior and goals of anRead MoreThe Problem Of English Language Learners1877 Words   |  8 Pagesthe following domains must be concentrated on: Culture (Cross-Cultural Communications), Language and Literacy (Applied Linguistics), Methods of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), ESOL Curriculum and Materials Development, and Assessment (ESOL Testing and Evaluation). Putting these topics at the forefront is sure to assist all English Language Learners in reaching academic success. Domain 1: Culture (Cross-Cultural Communications) Becoming knowledgeable about an English Language

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Effects Of Children After Parental Incarceration

A Literature Review: The Effects on Children After Parental Incarceration Prisons have been around for centuries and in many countries the prison population has grown quickly. The prisoners’ health, behavior and well-being have been focal points in many social concerns, however; incarceration goes beyond the prisoners’ experience. It touches employment after incarceration, social stigma, and families and communities that have been affected by incarceration, especially a child with incarcerated parents. That is what Joseph Murray, David P. Farrington, and Ivana Sekol focus on, the â€Å"forgotten victims† of crime (Matthews 1983). It is no surprise that children will experience many hardships emotionally and socially during their parental incarceration. This article aims to describe the associations between parental incarceration and children’s antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and low educational performance prior to this event. The United States has the highest rate of imprisonment and has the largest prison populat ion in all of the world. According to Glaze, about half of U.S. prisoners are parents of children under 18. Recent studies have noted that there are long-term effects toward parental incarceration of children showing â€Å"undesirable effects†. In one study of 411 boys, those who experienced parental incarceration within their first 10 years of their life had â€Å"double the risk for antisocial behavior, internalizing problems, and other adverse outcomes up toShow MoreRelatedLauren Touchet. Cjus301. 17 February 2017. 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While a man can murder someone in the second degree and be sentenced to a minimum of 10 years? Is it right to take a parent away from their children for upwards of 20 years? The United States government thinks this is fair and allows for less discrimination in the federal justice system, this law is called the Mandatory Minimum Sentencing law. It has been around since the late 18th century, butRead MoreThe Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Law1411 Words   |  6 Pages10 years? Is it right to take a parent away from their children for upwards of 20 years? The United States government thinks this is fair and allows for less discrimination in the justice system, this law is called the Mandatory Minimum Sentencing law which has been around since the late 18th century. The Mandatory Minimum is for several types of crimes ranging from drug possession, possession of illegal firearm s, and sex crimes against children. But this law was initially designed to have a set system

Friday, December 13, 2019

Life History Project Free Essays

string(73) " things run more smoothly and we have spare time for leisure activities\." LIFE HISTORY PROJECT By Lorraine Ward PSY 355 5/14/09 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Life History Research †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. We will write a custom essay sample on Life History Project or any similar topic only for you Order Now 4-8 Works Sited Page †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 9 Appendix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10- 15 Photo of Interviewee †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 16 ABSTRACT: This research delves into the special concerns of aging. I look at options that to be explored to make life more satisfying for senior citizens. Harry Lo Vette was my interviewee and his answers are similar to others his age, depending on ducational background, socioeconomic status, mental and physical health. Programs need to be implemented for older adults and their f amilies to discuss the lifespan. Lorraine Ward 5/1/2009 PSY 355 Life History Paper I chose to do the life history interview. I interviewed my neighbor/family friend, Harry E. Lo Vette. I learned a lot of interesting facts about Harry. He is the type of person that you can have a conversation with for hours and lose track of the time. Our interview took at least two hours. I have decided to have my parents fill out a questionnaire. This will be great to look back on, when my children have their own children. I am going to fill one out, too. I think it is a great way to record people in your family. My great, great, great-grandchildren may find it comforting to hear that we started cleaning up our planet or that cars ran on gas or moon hotels hadn’t developed, yet. These could be included in time capsules to show how we’ve evolved through generation to generation. There are many similarities between my interview and what we discussed in class. The one that bothers me the most is the acceptance of pain. Harry said he had overall good health but later in the interview said â€Å"I hurt. I take a few pills it makes you feel dumb in the head the pain goes away for half an hour. † I know my grandmother suffers with pain, too and she takes hands full of prescription medication. A man at my job takes 15 different vitamin and medications, twice a day. He suffers with pain. I don’t understand why take the pills if you are still going to hurt? Why prescribe a medication that obviously doesn’t work? Why are we not looking for alternative methods to take their pain away, if medications/pain relievers aren’t working? It seems to me that the physicians are just dealing with the pain and not the cause. Do we just put our elderly on a shelf? â€Å"Here, take these. Go home and come back when these are gone. † Your children and grandchildren have their hectic lives and visit between PTA meetings, softball, and soccer games. Your friends either can’t drive, have passed on, go south for winter, or are in a nursing home, possibly suffering more than you. We treat animals better than we treat our elderly and our country is supposed to be a great place to live†¦.. We must look into changing this. â€Å"†¦there is more to aging than meets the eye! † (Althoff, pg. 9) â€Å"For some, later years are a time of struggle, while others enjoy greater success† (Crosnoe, pg. 310). This may be because of good physical and mental health or because of their socioeconomic status being a positive one. According to Crosnoe, three criteria must be met to have a successful adaptation to aging. These criteria are; family engagement, occupational success, and civic involvement. We must remember that everyone is unique in their aging process, also. These factors are relevant to a subject’s differences in longevity and aging; biological background, education, occupation, marital status and family life, ethnic group, geographic location, housing, recreation, religion, and social class. (Althoff, pg. 9) Family interactions are important throughout life (Brubaker, pg. 212). Time spent with one’s family is important and so is accomplishing career goals (Crosnoe, pg. 311). Harry was successful in his career and enjoyed his job at the telephone company. He had a bad fall but went back on the job after he could walk, again. Also, he was involved with Boy Scouts from the time he was a child. I can recall many stories he has told my family and I about his camping trips with the Boy Scouts. He really enjoyed teaching the young boys important life skills and respect. He has had a lot of civic involvement. Marital status can have a positive influence on aging, also, especially if it’s a long term marriage to only one partner. It enhances a person’s security and provides social networks, especially for men (Crosnoe, pg. 312). Harry has been married twice but he realizes his first marriage dissolved because of his alcoholism. â€Å"Alcoholism is disruptive†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Crosnoe, pg. 312). He still visits his first wife (Rose) in the nursing home she resides at. Donna his current wife understands because she realizes Rose has Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Harry has been married to Donna for over twenty five years. Religion can be beneficial to aging subjects. It can provide comfort, direction, a sense of community, and an anchor in social networks, which can increase social amalgamation over time and aid in successful adaptation Crosnoe, pg. 313). Harry is active in his church, the Salvation Army. His church gives to the less fortunate and Harry finds this important. He came from a family that believed in giving. â€Å"†¦to the extent that aging includes a greater concern with others’ welfare. † (Silver, pg. 13). Harry’s mother brought food to those without, during the G reat Depression. It’s fulfilling to help others, out of the kindness of your heart. Organization within the family unit is important at any age. â€Å"Well-organized families weathered even severe losses, while disorganized families suffered severe disruption. (Duvall, pg. 131). Every family has conclusive essential tasks that must be met: (a) provide physical care, (b) allocate resources, (c) arbitrate who does what, (d) assure members’ socialization, (e) authenticate interaction models, (f) incorporate and extricate members, (g) relate to society through its institutions, (h) and affirm morale and motivation (Duvall, pg. 131). I know in my own family if we stay organized, things run more smoothly and we have spare time for leisure activities. You read "Life History Project" in category "Life" If we don’t stay on top of things, then it’s very chaotic. Psychological well-being and social engagement is a lifelong process. (Crosnoe, pg. 309). â€Å"A positive view of the world may not be crucial for the young, but seeing the world as more than good and people as more trustworthy than not is a source of well-being for older adults. † (Silvers, pg. 14). I see this in Harry. During my interview with him, I asked if he had experienced any prejudice against him due to his age and he had said no. He went onto explain that a younger person needs to be taught to respect others. This is a positive view of the world. I do wonder if this is across the board or if only by those who have adapted well to aging. Also, I wonder if this occurs across multicultural backgrounds or just those of European decent. The Great Depression and World War II greatly affected the current generation of senior citizens. They probably knew someone who served in the armed forces at this time or they themselves served. Combat experience and family death are traumatic events that affect a person for the entirety of his/her life (Crosnoe, pg. 313). â€Å"Combat in World War II increased odds of eing less adjusted (289%)†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Crosnoe, pg. 321). Those who served in WWII or had suffered a loss of a child were less likely to be satisfied with their life than others (Crosnoe, pg. 323). War veterans have a less effective style for aging, even years later (Crosnoe, pg. 324). The end of WWII brought more problems with it. â€Å"American families were in disarray. † (Duvall, pg. 127). The men came back from the wa r changed by the event. The women had experienced a newfound independence of being employed outside the home. Children were either left fatherless (during the war) or went off to war. President Truman formed the First National Conference on the Family for 1948. The enlistment of participation of 123 national agencies centered on the family was called on. (Duvall, pg. 127). Truman actually acknowledged that families were in need of help. I wish our President or past President would acknowledge this. Our troops are coming home with many confusing thoughts and addictions (Heroin is cheaper in Iraq and Afghanistan. ). They have never been faced with these kinds of traumatic events. A person must ascertain a certain amount of habits to insure they live a fulfilling life, even into old age. One must moderate food, drink, and physical pleasures (Althoff, pg. 11). Too much of a good thing, is not good. A person should avoid grief, drugs, tobacco products, and an excess of alcohol (Althoff, pg. 11). These are toxins. It is wise to exercise daily, get plenty of sleep, get good medical care, have good personal hygiene, and breathe pure air. Quality medical care is hard to come by for lower income adults, especially the elderly, in America. It is recommended that one achieve a balance of physical and mental work throughout their lifespan (Althoff, pg. 11). It is a fact that as we age our bodily functions decrease. â€Å"The resolution of early stages greatly influences the outcomes of later stages. † (Dunkel, pg. 13). This would be along the same lines of Psychoanalytic theory, also. Erikson has eight stages in his theory. The one that affects this paper, though, is integrity versus despair. In old age the individual must assess their lives and have a sense of contentment or sorrow. Wisdom arrives with integrity as strength (Dunkel, pg. 4). According to Dunkel, a basic sense of trust develops an understanding of autonomy, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, and integrity (Dunkel, pg. 14). Harry seemed comfortable with his childhood and therefore, I assume this is why he is adjusting well to aging. My grandmother, too, has adapted well to aging, even though she suffers through a lot of pain. Is it possible that surviving great hurdles like war and economic struggles can bring a family closer and help a person to learn coping mechanisms to deal with adaptations needed in aging? Listening to the power point presentations in class, those who had a closer family network and had to struggle at some point in their life had a better outlook on aging. Is it generational or a theory we need to further research? The next generation to reach old age is the baby boomers. They are facing a different set of problems than their parents did. There is a higher rate of single parents, divorced, multiple marriages, extramarital activities, women that had entered the job force, and live in households where both parents were working (Giordano, pg. 11). This generation was more likely to have parents still alive and live close to them (Giordano, pg. 411). They are the recipients of advanced medical research, greater economic security, more open to alternative lifestyles, rising social security payments, and achieved higher levels of education (Giordano, pg. 412). Harry’s daughters are examples of how true this is. All three of them are teachers and that is a higher educa tion than Harry achieved. This generation has developed a more positive attitude on aging. They have adapted well and have increased their leisure activities, enjoy happier marriages and family relations (Giordano, pg. 412). There are (and will be) more fourth and fifth generation families. These subjects will require more counseling, health and enrichment programs (individual and marriage), and family therapy techniques will need adjusting to compensate for larger family networks (Giordano, pg. 413). They will be the pacesetters for the increase use of technology. They will not suffer from as many serious health issues, as previous generations had (Giordano, pg. 14). My parents are baby boomers and I agree with Giordano on most of what he wrote about on this generation. My mother goes to Curves for fitness. My father gardens, and remodels their home. This is form of enjoyment. They both like to travel via car to different castles and other places of interest to them. I know my grandparents never did this. In fact, I don’t believe they could afford to. â€Å"Health may be the most important factor associated with an older person’s well-being. † (Brubaker, pg. 212-213). Retirement is a major influence in an older adult’s life. It adds to the possible confusion that accompanies growing older. There need to be support groups that are community based and accessible to all ethnicities and genders, surrounding the topic of retirement. â€Å"Women have more difficulty adjusting to retirement than men. † (Brubaker, pg. 215). These support groups need to address financial planning (retirement income), â€Å"empty nest† syndrome, leisure activities, smaller households/larger family networks, medical care, intergenerational issues, accessing new technologies, social changes, fitness for the mind and body, and emotional changes (Brubaker, pg. 13). â€Å"Concurrent with the changes in spousal interaction, older parents need to develop new patterns of communication and interaction with their independent children. † (Brubaker, pg. 213). Issues pertaining to retirement programs are: â€Å"theoretical assumptions that under pins the programs’ rationale†, significance of the agenda, timin g of such learning occasions, teaching patterns, and accessibility of the program (Brubaker, pg. 215). There are stereotypes encompassing senior citizens that need to be altered because so many are negative. The assumption that older subjects don’t engage in sexual activities is false, for the most part. Many may not realize that holding hands, caressing each other, massages, and foreplay can astute to sexual activity. Intercourse does not need to be the only way to relieve sexual tension. Also, they may need to hear that it’s perfectly normal and okay to engage in sexual activity. Previous generations may have been told that it was not okay and this may have been passed down to other generations. As long as a physician has not said to refrain from sexual activity, it should be safe to do so. Other stereotypes include hearing loss, memory loss, control of bladder, perversion (â€Å"dirty old man†), and the necessity to call them â€Å"honey† or â€Å"dear†. There is hearing loss but not in everyone and not to the extreme pictured in cartoons. Short term memory loss is common but generally, long term memory is intact and sharper than some younger persons. Bodily functions do decrease but not everybody loses control of their bladder. The â€Å"Depends† and â€Å"Serenity† commercials would have you believe this occurs with all older adults, but it just simply isn’t true. The â€Å"Viagara† commercials play on people in the same way. Old people are no more likely to be perverted than anyone else. It is okay to be sexually attracted to another adult at any age. The person the attraction is aimed at should feel honored to be noticed by a more distinguished person. The older adult should feel proud that these feelings can be evoked still. Many older adults are living to see their children’s children and some have no idea how to deal with this. â€Å"Nearly 75% of older people are grandparents and nearly half are great-grandparents. † (Brubaker, pg. 216). Classes should be offered on how to be adequate, functional grandparents. Issues to be taught through family education classes ought to include: what to do with a grandchild, different grandparenting styles, intergenerational differences/similarities, how these bonds will strengthen the family structure, gender differences, listening to views of younger people, lifespan development, generativity, increase satisfaction of having grandchildren, and how to improve family communication (Brubaker, pg. 216-217). A grandparent’s role is very different from a parent’s role. They are more nurturing and less disciplining. A grandparent can teach a child more than a parent can, though. A child can learn about a generation that has past, with more detail than a textbook. Grandparents offer a wide array of learning experiences for their grandchildren. Environment influences how a subject adapts to aging. â€Å"People with particular needs search for the environments that meet them best. † (Text, ch. 5). Many different cultures hold the older generation as the wisest. Some are chiefs in their nations or kings/queens of their empires. The United States is one of the most powerful countries in the world but they hold very little respect for senior citizens. In fact, there are very few programs available to older adults. They often are challenged with high medical bills, high costs of mobility equipment, transportation costs (after they lose use of their driver’s license), and possible nursing home costs. Senior citizens may feel distraught over the obstacle of maturing. Our economy will determine if more programs are able to be launched or not. It will ascertain how well or not, the elderly live. (Frontline Video: Living Old)The length of time they live will be affected by the cost of living. Nursing homes need to get a facelift. Instead of being waiting rooms for death, they should be improved to be gazed upon as an oasis for the elderly. They have lived full lives and deserve to be treated with respect. Programs required in this environment are; life history therapies, training for staff, co-ed rooms, family education about lifespan development, technology training, discussions about aging (group therapy), memory builder games or skill training, course availability (of their choice) at a local college or learning institution, and options about dying with dignity (vegetable state, assisted suicide? , living wills). Presently, our economy is facing a possible depression. Medicare has been cut and Social Security runs the risk of running out of funding. Older adults are being forced either out of a job or into an early retirement due to budget cutbacks, the closing of companies, or the companies have moved out of the country. This leaves an older adult at a loss of coping skills. This needs to be addressed within every community because it affects everyone. Many of these people don’t have the required skills to achieve another job without a higher education. Some may not even have a high school diploma or GED. They are now faced with competing for jobs with younger, more viable adults that do have the required education and skills. This is a major stressor for these misplaced aging adults. Their risk for acute illnesses may rise due to this added stress leaving them even more vulnerable. I learned a lot from this course on adult development and aging, the life history interview, and this research paper. I realized how condescending I may sound to elderly customers who step into my taxi by calling them â€Å"honey† or â€Å"sugar†. I had never even thought about it until we learned it in class. I’m conditioning myself to use it less and to treat senior citizens like others in my cab and in general. I respect my elders, always. This is how I was raised and something I struggle to instill in my children. They seem so stubborn (lol). I tried to include approximately the same information in my research paper as I asked in my life history interview with Harry Lo Vette. This wasn’t difficult because most of the information I found on aging surrounded these same topics or topics we had already discussed in class. I’m going to interview my parents and myself for fun. The answers may be worth putting in a time capsule or away for future generations to reminisce over. It will be interesting to review and revise my answers when I’m 50 or 60. This course was rewarding for me because I learned more than I ever thought I would. The achievements that older adults have over me are that they have successfully lived longer than I have (to date). WORKS SITED: Althoff, Sally A. (1975). Preparing Teachers, Students, and Citizens to Deal Constructively with the Problems and Potentialities of Aging. 1-79. Brubaker, T. H. , Roberto, K. A. (1993). Family Life Education for the Later Years. Family Relations, 42, 212-221. Crosnoe, R. , Elder, Jr, G. (2002). Successful Adaptation in the Later Years: A Life Course Approach to Aging. Social Psychology Quarterly, 65, 309-328. Dunkel, C. S. , Sefcek, J. A. (2009). Eriksonian Lifespan Theory and Life History Theory: An Integration Using the Examples of Identity Formation. Review of General Psychology, 13, 13-23. Duvall, Evelyn M. (1988). Family Development’s First Forty Years. Family Relations, 37, 127-134. Giordano, Jeffrey. (1988). Parents of the Baby Boomers: A New Generation of Young-Old. Family Relations, 37, 411-414. Silver, R. C. , Poulin, M. (2008). World Benevolence Beliefs and Well-Being Across the Life Span. Psychology and Aging, 23, 13-23. APPENDIX Life History Interview DEMOGRAPHIC INFO: 1) What is your full name? Harry Edward Lo Vette 2) Where were you born? Corning Hospital, Corning, NY 3) What is your age? 79 (10/19/1929) 4) Oldest of 5 children: 3 boys 2 girls. I lost one brother here, 10 years ago. He worked with asbestos @ Corning Glass. He died of Cancer from the asbestos. 5) Where did you live as a child? Spent most of my life in 100 radius of Dundee area. Grew up in Monterey on a farm, during the Depression, for a number of years. Lived in the Chenango Forks down near Binghamton then we came back to Dundee area – Lakemont. Then we moved back to Binghamton area then back to Dundee, just before the War 1950. Then I graduated high school in 1949. Went to Korea, came home got married, 1st marriage, lived there until 1955 when I went to work for the phone company down in Corning. 6) What do you recall about your family home and neighborhood; you lived in as a child? We lived on a 500 acre farm. We didn’t have many cows. We milked 35 cows by hand, my brother I, my mother my father did. Everything was done by mules. We had black mules. During The Depression time you didn’t know you were supposed to have money in your pocket but we had food. We lived good, on food. We had all kinds of animals. Plus, we hunted a lot. We had beef, pork, never raised rabbits. We had ducks, chickens, and we always had a couple of tame sheep. The neighbors raised sheep. My mother always made us our White shirts. And I went to a one room school house until I was in 4th grade, over in Monterey. One room school house, one teacher, maybe 16 students. My mother was strict. My father only hit me just one time that was calling my brother a liar. He was a hard working man, but he didn’t condone that type of behavior. We were supposed to take turns cutting wood, fill the kindling box and heavy wood. Come in from chores one morning, my father said â€Å"Before you eat, who was supposed to cut kindling wood last night? † My brother said â€Å"Harry†. I turned around to him. My father said â€Å"Get out there cut it†. When I went by my brother, I said â€Å"You liar†. I can remember it I never saw it coming. He picked up the little coal shovel caught me right across the fanny. (He chuckled) He use to threaten to tear our arm off beat us to death with a bloody stump, but he didn’t mean it. My mother was the domineering one, belt, switch, leather strap. 7) Where do you live? 800 Hill Road, Genoa, NY 13071 8) How long have you lived @ your current address? 28 yrs. Married Donna moved in. Donna lived there for 29 years. (He gets in conversation with my Mom about our family house. It was built in early 1800s. ) 9) With whom do you live? Donna (wife) 10) Are there any concerns about safety or mobility? No. I can’t do the things I use to do. A little lame, so far, no. 11) Both of us are retired. I retired after 32 years from the phone company. Your annual income: $20,000-$30,000. We run about $30,000 a year, between the 2 of us. 12) What is your ethnicity? Paternal Grandfather: French Canadian. Paternal Grandmother: Scottish English. 13) What religion do you practice? Christianity. Salvation Army. 14) How has the church affected your life and the life of your family? Different attitude @ looking @ things. A lot of good friends. Changed my life by quitting drinking. I don’t get as upset as I use to. I find the Salvation Army is comforting. I’ve been down there since 1972. Many churches are cliquish. They have their small groups. They may even look down their nose @ you, if you’re not properly dressed or you’re not this or this. The Salvation Army has never been that way. Their theme has always been you can teach the Word to someone who is down and out and hungry. The 1st thing you do is feed them pick them up. It’s been better for my life. 15) What did you do for a living (jobs)? Picked berries/grapes as a child (made $100 a season), high school: drove truck (17-18 without a driver’s license) (big) – markets, Corning Glass Works- television bulbs (Spring 1950-1st to make rectangle bulbs), Army (Korea), drove truck, Dundee Phone Comp, NY Phone Comp. was @ NY Phone Comp for 32 years (1953-1985) Got hurt on phone Comp job @ 32 (1962). Fell from top of pole landed standing up, couldn’t walk for almost 1 year! 16) How has these jobs changed? People my age were brought up to work. The injury changed his life. The Army Korea let him travel. People working the jobs changed. Cell phones changed the whole phone company. Computers took over my job. HEALTH and LEVEL of FUNCTIONING: 1) How is your overall health? Good. I take blood pressure medicine, but my blood pressure is good. I quit smoking in 1983. 2) Have you had any serious illnesses? Bronchitis. I get it every winter now. It was real bad this year the 1st Anti-biotic didn’t work. ) How did this affect your life? I didn’t get much done. This weekend was my 1st time in my wood shop this year. 4) Have there been any changes in your physical functioning over the last several years? (He chuckles)Not as much stamina. I can’t do hard work for as many hours, w/out rest. 5) Has your vision or hearing changed? Yeah! Had Cataracts removed new le nses implanted. Then got better vision than before. All hearing gone in right ear hard to hear in left. 6) Has your memory changed? Yes. 7) Does this affect your life? Long term is good. Short term memory is bad. Not as sharp. I can do mathematics plan a deck still. My 1st wife has Alzheimer’s disease. 8) Has your ability to use your mind or learn new things changed? You have to adapt. Attitude makes the difference. If you want to learn, you will learn it. 9) How are you treated by younger people? Respect is given taken. You have to give younger people respect. Lately, I haven’t had to associate with them. You have to lay it down to them. I never was discriminated against. 10) How do you feel about getting older? You learn to accept it. I don’t want to live to be 100. I just don’t want to go into a nursing home, unless I have to. I‘d rather not. 11) If you could be any age, what would you be? I’d like to go back be 19, again. Up until 32, when I fell. Now, some days it’s an effort to get up do anything. I hurt. I take a few pills it makes you feel dumb in the head pain goes away for half an hour. Yeah, those were good years. 12) Why? My life started. I enjoyed life. The last of the 40s (the 1940s) was good. AGE-GRADED, HISTORY-GRADED, and NON-NORMATIVE EVENTS: 1) What is your highest level of formal education? High school. Graduated in 1949. Army: map-making survey = 2 years of college. semester of college @ Auburn Community College, after I fell off the telephone pole. 2) Where did you attend school? Monterey (1 room school house), Dundee (built new school in 1939), Chenango Forks (1937-2 years), Dundee. 3) How did you get back forth from school? 1st walked ? mile, later walked 2 miles to catch the school bus. 4) What were some of your classmates’ names? Richard Peterson, Ros coe (big bee guy), Mike Hartford, A. Chadwick, Mary Sharp (my old flame) 5) Do you recall any childhood girlfriends? Mary Sharp (8 years) – went bad while I was in Korea. 6) Marriages? 2. My 1st wife (Rose) has Alzheimer’s and liver cancer 7) Where did you meet Donna? At Work. She came to the phone company. 8) Children? 1st Marriage – 3 daughters (all over 50 years old), 2nd Marriage – 2 step-children (daughter son). 9) Grandchildren? 4 4 step-grandchildren. 10) Where do your children live? Oregon, California, and Willard, NY. All are teachers. 11) How often do you see them? Out of state – not as often. The one in NY more often. 12) Romantic Relationships (not married to)? Honestly? 30. I was proposed to 3 times during the Leap Year I got out of service. Only 1 regret. 3) Are your children supportive in areas you need them to be as you age? Yes. Steps: David more than Dorie. 14) Do they respect your wishes? Yes. 15) What effect did (The Depression, World War I, and World War II) have on your life? The Depression – always had food. My mother made us white shirts. She was a good seamstress. Christmas wasn’t as big. My mom made our gifts. She made me a farm set by hand. Mother gave the neighbor some foods that we had made. World War 1 – It was depressing. I was 11 years old. World War 2 – a friend of our family was in a Japanese prison Camp (didn’t die). We lost friends in Normandy. In Maine – airplane spotters. 16) What changes have you noticed during your life in such areas as fashion, morality and technology? Fashion – always wore jeans, sweatshirts, shoes. Probably affected women more than men. Morality – NOT taught anymore! Depressing. I had a certain amount of wildness but not like today. 20s – No Respect. Drug Problem – mostly Blacks (out of large cities high school drop-outs). We didn’t have television. Media changed, too. 1st World War – it was weeks before we heard anything. 2nd World War – took 1 week. Korea – 3-4 days. Vietnam – same day. We kept some things quiet/hidden. Technology – EVERYTHING! Farming, cars (model B-4, 6-cylinder), lawn mowers (we had push mowers) – riders, flying (My 1st ride â€Å"Old Home Days† 1935. $5. 00 in an open cockpit, 2-seater; now 35,000 feet above ground, across USA) 17) How do you feel about these changes? Some is good. A lot†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Pesticides/sprays/growth are NOT good. There is a certain amount you have to have. Manufacturers – processed food. Candy bars used to be made @ Hershey Chocolate factory. 18) What do you think is one of the best technologies? Medical field. The development. If we had MRIs Cat Scans I wouldn’t have gone what I had when I fell. Sooner for recovery time. Extended life (transplants) 19) What do you think is one of the worst? Control over pesticides/growth hormones/sprays on our vegetation are TOXIC! I wonder if this has anything to do with the trouble with newborns. 20) What was family life like when you were growing up? We looked out for each other. We all had jobs around the house. My Dad was a truck driver. He taught me how to drive tractor trailer truck @ 14. We did things together as a family; picnics, family gatherings. My Dad taught me farm work. Dad was interested in my schooling. We were very close. He was killed in a truck accident while I was in the service. 21) What was your favorite radio show? Lone Ranger, Amos Andy, The Green Hornet, The Shadow, The Riflemen. 22) How old were you when you got your first television? 1947-48. It was an Admiral. 16† set. 23) What are some of the traditions still carried on by your family? Birthdays holidays. Easter is big in the church. 24) What were your favorite childhood games? Sandlot Baseball. We had a family of full-blooded Indians that lived above us. We played a lot of Indian games; Lacrosse – we made our own sticks balls (baked clay wrapped in cloth), Stone Toss (similar to Tidily Winks), and a homemade game using a dried out pig bladder ( air dried, inflated with air, and used as a ball), Softball, Allie-Allie Over (over the school house, 2 teams-one on each side), Kick the Can, Hide Seek, see who could swing over the top of bar (above the swing), Foxfire (on Spook Night) (decaying wood, NOT handled by your (bare)hands), hunting, fishing. 25) What other entertainment have you enjoyed? Square Round dances, hiking, swimming. SOCIAL LIFE: 1) How many friends do you have? 100 easy. 5 close. You should always have 5 close friends. 2) How many of these friends are childhood friends? 15-20, some have died. 3) How often are you able to visit with them? Some not for years (meaning more than 2), some every 2 years, some everyday. It depends on if they are old friends or new friends. 4) What activities did you enjoy doing when you were in your 20s? Roller skating dancing. Hunting fishing. 30s? Fell off pole. Small amount of fishing. 40s? Hunted fished. Some woodwork. 50s? Fished Bear hunting (Canada). Built my wood shop in my late 50s – early 60s. Wood working. 5) What are some activities you like to do together? 1950-1972 Camping – Canada, Nova Scotia, had nice Gardens 6) How many of these activities have changed as a result of getting older? Lots of them. Not as many. Don’t hunt, little fishing, no camping. 7) Do you belong to any church or other social groups? Men’s Fellowship @ church. 8) How has the Boy scouts affected your life? Better understanding of the world. Nature. Benefit: live with nature do it comfortably. 9) What â€Å"Words of Advice† would you like to pass on to future generations in your family? Get a good education that you can get money be comfortable. Go to college in fields worthwhile prosperous. Nothing wrong with making a good living. STORY TIME: Some people you’ve met during your lifetime leave footprints in your life forever. You could talk about your family members, relatives, friends, acquaintances, or special some ones and how they made an impact in your life or even changed your life. Also, places you’ve been to or where you lived could also be nice reminiscences since you could describe the place, the people in it, and how the weather was like. My 1st Scout Master – NOT to judge others to fast. Don’t know what they have been through. Dad – Stand up for what you believe in. Lots of people; in Korea, camping. Some memorable pieces or items could become great components of reminiscing. Things like your childhood toys or games. Heirlooms are wonderful jewelries that have been given from generation to generation that bring history. This can be anything that may not be important to others but may be significant to you and brought good memories. Some things of my Dad my uncle. An emblem from a guy I met on my way to Korea. I never saw him, again. 1) Do you have any regrets about your life? Lots of things. 2) What are they? I wouldn’t have drunk like I did. I made a lot of money and didn’t save it. 3) Are there things you would like to do that you haven’t done yet? Fly faster than the speed of sound (had the opportunity in 1991. Didn’t do it. ), visit Australia. 4) Do you think you will do them? Maybe. Who knows? Is there anything else you would like to share about yourself or a story? I’ve lived a rich life. I was accepted at Oswego State Teaching School but I didn’t have the money to go. . How to cite Life History Project, Essays

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Business Ethics and Portfolio management †

Question: Discuss about the Business Ethics and Portfolio management. Answer: Introduction Corporate social responsibility is an important part of every business. Any additional step that a business takes to become more socially responsible is its corporate social responsibility. The business ethics adopted by every company have a huge impact on the business as well as the positioning of the brand in the minds of the consumers. There are a list of 5 companies that have been compiled together to form a portfolio of good corporate social responsibility. Patagonia Patagonia is a leading apparel brand. The company makes active wear clothes and accessories. Patagonia ensures that their raw material is safe for the environment (Long Fain, 2015). It is a rubber free organization no product contains any amount of rubber. Patagonia also works hard had reducing the carbon footprints on the world by effectively managing their waste. One of Patagonias important contribution is through their plan 1% for the planet. Through this program, the company ensures that 1% of their total sales every year is spent in bettering the planet through environment support programs (ORourke Strand, 2017). Patagonia was also the first brand to launch products in pesticide free cotton. In fact the company makes sure that all of its raw materials are ethically sourced and highly environment friendly. Adobe Adobe has been one of the greenest IT companies in the world. The brand has earned immense trust and respect among all its customers. Adobe has consistently put efforts in reducing its carbon footprints. Adobes headquarters are entirely green with the most effectivewaste management system in place. Adobe has initiated over 70 energy conservation projects to improve the brands environmental sustainability. Over 2000 employees at Adobes headquarters actively engage in recycling and composting programs (Sharma, 2017). Their efforts today have helped in diverting 97% of sites solid waste from landfills. Adobes sustainable practices extend to the entire supply chain of the brand from inventory management, reduction of shipping materials, scrap recycling and safe working conditions. Adobe has won numerous awards for training effectiveenvironmental management to its employees as well. The offices are well equipped with effective waste disposable and the best part is the employees take perso nal responsibility to take good care of the environment. Adobe has a go green motto for all its employees and consumers including think green, act green, eat green, and build green , read green and shop green. Adobes future plans include introducing over 2000 new projects for environmental development and substantial reduction in the carbon footprints as well as generated waste by the brand on a global scale. New Belgium Brewing New Belgium Brewing Company is a leading brewing firm with customers spread across the globe. At present the company is working hard on reducing its carbon footprints. The company has a goal to reduce these carbon emissions to 16kg in 2020 from 18kg in 2014 (New Belgium Brewing Company, 2018). At present the company is diverting 99.9% of its waste and ensuring substantialmanagement to continue the same in the longer run (Reisdorf Wiedinmyer, 2017). These waste management plans continue to all their offices across the globe. They strongly believe that cleaner water makes better beer hence they ensure best quality of their products through the use of clean water. The brand is also working at reducing its water consumption with a goal of reducing the water consumed for beer ration to 3.5:1 from its current 4:1. There are team of people who keep a stern eye on the total amount of natural resources used by the brand. Employees of New Belgium Brewing Company are also trained to reduce eve ryday waste and energy consumption. Uber Uber is a taxi giant with its presence in over 120 countries across the globe. Uber is brand that has changed the shape of the taxi industry. Along with adding convenience to the lives of people, Uber is also a highly environment friendly company. It is the brands aim to reduce the usage of personal cars in the world. For the same reason, Uber has launched Uber Pool services where up to four people who are travelling to a nearby destination can pool the cab rather than taking four different taxis (Halbheer, Gartner, Gerstner Koenigsberg, 2017). Their attempts to reduce the carbon footprints include ensuring that each and every car is thoroughly tested and goes through a tough process of ensuring reduced pollution emissions. Uber has also been reducing prices of the Uber Pool facility to encourage people to share their cabs. These efforts are largely appreciated by many governments. On the world environment day, Uber released a green index which depicted that the launch of uber pool has helped the capital city of India save 936000 liters of petrol till date (Business Standard, 2017). These figures are clear evidence of the massive change that Uber can make to the world. Peerby Peerby is a disruptive innovation that is leading the global markets across various industries. The business model involves a mobile application that allows people to share or buy products from the people around them. They work on the model that every product has a certain life cycle and not every person uses the product through its entire cycle. Therefore in order to increase the life cycle of the product, it is wiser to share or sell it to someone in need. The idea itself is so highly sustainable that it has reduced the demand for new goods altogether. When people buy less goods, then automatically the waste from those goods also decreases. This is especially true for plastic goods. The company is trying to devise an alternative from the current consumption and throw away culture. Currently, the brand has a billion dollar worth of products available on their platforms (World Economic Forum, 2016). The brand has been established with an aim of reducing tons of waste, carbon and gree nhouse gas emissions. But most importantly, the brand vastly reduces the need to consume virgin natural resources every year for producing new goods. The company is yet small but the reason behind adding this to the portfolio was to acknowledge the brilliance behind the idea and the business plan of the brand. References Business Standard, 2017, World Environment Day, Retrieved from Halbheer, D., Grtner, D. L., Gerstner, E., Koenigsberg, O. (2017). Optimizing service failure and damage control.International Journal of Research in Marketing. Long, M. M., Fain, D. (2015). The Clothing Swap: Social, Sustainable, and Sacred. New Belgium Brewing Company, (2018), Energy, Retrieved from ORourke, D., Strand, R. (2017). Patagonia: Driving Sustainable Innovation by Embracing Tensions.California Management Review,60(1), 102-125. Reisdorf, J., Wiedinmyer, C. (2017).Report to the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project(No. DOE-IGAC2016-SC0016041). University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR/CPAESS), Boulder, CO (United States). Sharma, S. K. (2017). A comparative study of corporate social responsibility in public and private sector organizations in India. World Economic Forum, (2016), 5 Environment friendly companies, retrieved from

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Public Relation Models Essay Example

Public Relation Models Essay The purpose of this essay is to achieve better insight into the different methods of conducting real-life public relations nowadays. Theoretically, several models have been developed to categorize the different types of PR practice/practitioners; analyzing the usage of these models by PR professionals will reveal the extent to which they are valid in real life. Because these models deal with the communication-flow involved in PR, the essay will begin with a basic outline of how human communication works and how it can be applied effectively, using theory from Stappers (1988) and Dervin (1989)- Stappers offers a basic conversation model which describes the information and communication processes, while Dervin discusses the role of audiences in communication. The next step will be to analyze the aforementioned PR models and shortly describe them, starting with Grunig’s (1989) set of models (symmetrical and asymmetrical) and moving on to Van Ruler’s (1997) tested models (the technician, sales manager and intermediary). The final section of the essay will concentrate on real-life examples of how the PR models are applied, related to commercial business and international public relations, provided and examined by Lordan (2006) and Grunig (1993). The examples will include customer input to organizations and the use of Grunig’s models in US politics. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Relation Models specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Public Relation Models specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Public Relation Models specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A detailed analysis will follow which will lead to the conclusion of how the communication-flow models apply to real life, and how valid each models is today. Communication: how does it work? To generate awareness of the communication process, Stappers created a general communication model. To successfully communicate, the receiver of the message does not only have to receive the information but also understand the meaning of it. Accordingly one can divide the receiver’s tasks into â€Å"phases such as noticing, observing and knowing† (Stappers, 1988, p. ). If one would combine these activities, one can use the term ‘information source’. When the receiver is observing, he or she gains knowledge. This is called the information process – â€Å"it consists of the receiver and the information source† (Stappers, 1988, p. 3). It will become a communication process when the receiver communicates the message to someone else. Within the communication p rocess there is a sender, who supplies another person with a message. A communication process is when a person, the sender, supplies another person with a message. According to Stappers, communication revolves around second-hand experiences (benefiting from other experiences), and also passing (sending) them on, allowing others to benefit from your experiences. This can be considered as an optimistic view of what genuinely happens; one should regard it more as a desirable result of communication. Communication enables us to share each other’s experiences and evolve with them, this is why this model can be seen as a two-way flow of information; one sends, receives and shares. Dervin came up with a similar conclusion to communication (specifically two-way), by discussing the importance of the audience during public communication campaigns. According to Dervin (1989), the audience is not â€Å"an amorphous mass† (p. 20), but rather a group of people who can learn from and teach (through feedback) the sender. If you listen to your audience you can understand what they need and possibly satisfy them (as well as yourself), thus building a bridge to your â€Å"Uses (Helps)† (Dervin, 1989, p. 18) over the gap that would exist if audience feedback was absent. This â€Å"sense-making approach† to communication simply states that two-way communication is superior to one-way communication. Using this basic information on communication-flow, we are able to explain how communication works in the different PR models offered by Grunig and Van Ruler. Grunig’s PR models: Asymmetrical vs. symmetrical communication Grunig has introduced four basic models for public relations. Each model represents the values, goals and behaviours practiced by organizations when they act upon public relations. Grunig (1989) states that the models are â€Å"simplified in the same way that a perfect vacuum or perfect competition are simplified representations in other sciences,† i. e. these models represent clear-cut, ‘perfect’ types of PR practice that may not necessarily be recognized in real life. However Grunig tries to identify and display the underlying reasons for applying a certain theory by a public relation practitioner. Grunig’s models are ‘press agentry/publicity’, ‘public information’, ‘two-way asymmetrical’ and ‘two-way symmetrical’. According to Grunig, these four models simultaneously contain and represent the companies’ inherent values, goals and behavior. The models can be divided in two groups, the distinction of which lies in the communication methods used. Grunig describes that public relation practitioners  follow either an asymmetrical or symmetrical way of communication on which they base  their actions and which determines what kind of relationship an organization has with its publics. If one should examine to which ideology or perception the PR-practitioners act upon it could help to develop further more effective public relations efforts. The ‘press agentry/publicity’ and ‘public information’ models consist of one-way communication whereas the ‘two-way asymmetrical’ and ‘two-way symmetrical’ methods consist of two-way communication. One-way communication revolves around the company communicating to its audience with no feedback. As a dominant current world view, PR is still seen as â€Å"persuasive and manipulative† (Grunig, 1989, p. 40). The first presupposition fits within this world view, which Grunig describes as ‘Press agentry/ publicity’. This model seeks media attention in any way possible for example through product and trade fairs. This model is sometimes associated with propagandistic public relations- the PR focuses mainly on the positives of the organization and its products/services, and it emphasizes on benefiting the company, not the audience/publics, ‘the audience are passive receivers who ought to be â€Å"persuaded or manipulated† (Grunig, 1989, p. 40). ‘Public information’ similarly focuses on publishing positive (yet truthful) information about the given organization; however it is reluctant to disseminate negative information. Grunig states that (in contrast to the first model) this model tends to manipulate the publics unintentionally. For example, bands who participate in the Live Earth concerts have ‘public information’ PR which concentrates on the benefits of fighting global warming, while ignoring the fact that preparing and carrying out the concerts adds a lot to global warming (Vozel, 2007). Both of these one-way communication models are used by PR practitioners to inform the publics about the organization without any research of the publics (Grunig, 1989). The two-way communication models are more complicated in that they involve research of the publics in order to support them as well as the organization. ‘Two-way asymmetrical’ communication uses research to find out what has to be done to satisfy the public while still focusing mostly on benefiting the organization without the changing organizational behavior. Therefore, behavioral change, as Grunig puts it, from the side of the audience is hoped to benefit the organization rather than both involved parties. This model can be seen as manipulative because an organization uses it to satisfy the public mainly for its own good-will. ‘Two-way symmetrical’ communication, similarly to ‘two-way asymmetrical’ communication, involves research of the publics. However, it differs in its purpose- instead of focusing on the benefits of the organization, it emphasises on a mutual understanding between the organization and its publics. Practitioners fine-tune the needs and wants of both the organization and its publics to achieve harmony and find better solutions to problems together (synergy). Organizations using this model are known to bargain and negotiate with their publics and develop strategies of conflict resolutions. According to Grunig (1989) only the ‘two-way symmetrical’ communication model is genuinely symmetrical. In contrast to the other three models, ‘two-way symmetrical’ communication is the only one that does not focus solely of the benefits of the company. ‘Two-way asymmetrical’ communication also involves the publics but tends to use persuasive and manipulative messages to support them, as seen in the ‘press publicity/agentry’ model. Practitioners who use ‘public information’ may also manipulate publics (although it could be unintentional). Furthermore, Grunig (1989) argues that ‘two-way symmetrical’ communication is the best of these models because it is the only one that uses moral and ethical approaches in PR. After identifying and distinguishing the four PR-models, Grunig states why an organisation practices a particular one. He concludes that the reason why a model is applied lies in what he calls the ‘dominant coalition’. This term implies that these models ‘function as a part of an organisation’s ideology’ and become ‘situational strategies’. Grunig also comes to the conclusion that the top management, ‘the power elite’ , (which works separately from the PR practitioners) establishes strategic target publics and subsequently passes this issue to the PR practitioner, who has to accomplish this task in coherence with the ‘organisational culture’. Finally to summarize, it can be said that several ways of practicing public relations can be identified. Reasons why a company chooses to act upon a particular model is strongly determined by its ‘dominant coalition’. Van Ruler’s PR models The following models also deal with the concept ‘two-way symmetrical communication’. Furthermore recent developments will be elaborated. With the outcome of Van Ruler’s research as a basis one could distinguish three models which determine how public relation officers (PROs) regard their role in the profession of PR. This can be distinguished by deriving the underlying views from the given answers by leading PROs in the Netherlands. The three models are: †¢ The Technician, who only wants to accomplish his /her goals. There is no role for the receiver (the public). Sales manager, who focuses on building a positive image of the company, the receiver is passive. †¢ Intermediary, who is responsible for creating and maintaining a closed mutual relationship, between the organisation and its public. The receiver is active. She describes ‘the technician’ as someone â€Å"who is tactically concerned with the production and dissemination of communica tion products† (Van Ruler, 1997, p. 97). She refers to this view as a ‘technical one’ which implies that this person is just â€Å"subservient to the technical demands of the execution of his duties† (Van Ruler, 1997, p. 7). The second view a PRO can have is characterized as ‘sales manager’. Van Ruler (1997) describes it as a synchronization of the behavior of the public with the view of the organization (p. 97). This view can also be characterized as an ‘instrumental one’ meaning that this person is merely following the guidelines and sets up the organizational strategy. ‘The intermediary’ is the last view derived from Van Ruler’s research outcomes. The intermediary regards his or her job in â€Å"building bridges and trying to stand between and organization and publics† (Van Ruler, 1997, p. 97). This perception of the profession includes being interested in some sort of exchange between both, the organization and the publics in order to gain mutual understanding, as Van Ruler describes it. This is why this view can be perceived as a ‘professional’ one meaning that this person is more distant, he or she is like a third party between organization and public who tries to intermediate in order to bring both in ‘ tune’. This identified model is, to some extent, similar to Grunig’s ‘two-way symmetrical way’ of communication. Both models contain many overlapping characteristics. The theoretical framework delivered by Grunig sets up certain values in a particular view. Van Ruler distinguishes similar models, only with different terminology, for example ‘intermediary’ or ‘professional view’ instead of Grunig’s words ‘two-way symmetrical communication’. By using different terminology Van Ruler puts the same process in a different context. Van Ruler differentiates her models and provides additional material to Grunig’s outcome, by stating that while these presuppositions can be easily identified, they cannot be easily found in the practical field of a working PRO. This arouses the question as to whether or not the ‘two-way symmetrical’ method of information is only possible in Grunig’s theoretical framework. This is because Van Ruler, through her research, tried to identify the ‘two-way symmetrical’ way of information in the daily work of selected PROs and was not able to identify it. The communication-flow PR models in modern-day practice: Real-life examples Grunig and Van Ruler described interactions with the publics by using the terms ‘intermediary’ or ‘two-way symmetrical’ flow of communication. Lordan describes these interactions as increases in ‘interactivity’ between a company and the audience by stating the possible benefits as well. He states that the ‘interactivity’ already exists by means of having focus groups or by conducting customer testimonials. However, there is now a movement which is far more comprehensive. Currently, Lordan (2006) has stated: â€Å"customers are being asked for their input in shaping all elements of an organization† (p. 27), especially within the field of communication he adds. Many activities which were handled by communication specialists are now partly determined by the public itself. For instance Lordan (2006) says the Super Bowl commercials, â€Å"are often held up as a barometer of professional communication trends† (p. 27). Nowadays, organizations are asking their customers to shape their message and commercials by letting them develop creative concepts and by involving them in the campaigns. Reasons for this behavior of the consumer according to Lordan can be given with the example of ‘American Idol’, a show where the audience is obliged to vote for the contestants and therefore actively influence the outcome (â€Å"greater excitement†). Another reason is the change in technology, from ‘old media’ such as newspapers and television which â€Å"happen to us† passively to new media like websites or mp3-devices which he states â€Å"demand interactivity- we happen to them. † The willingness to expose themselves can be regarded as an indicator that consumers â€Å"anticipate – even prefer – greater influence in the communication process. † (Lordan, 2006, p. 28) With this Lordan is not referring to the general communication model described by Stappers. The difference is that Stappers refers more to second hand information; he would regard the sending of the message as the communication process. YouTube is also an example of giving evidence for the high demand of being capable to add something to the media, to be interactive. Since YouTube consists of what the user offers. Lardon also says that because of these recent developments PROs fear about their job security. This is due to their job being partly taken over by the audience. Assuming that, more involvement of the target receiver is harming the ‘control’ of the sender. This implies that several views are still predominant, which are also partly characterized in the concepts ‘two-way asymmetrical communication’  (Grunig)  and sales manager (Van Ruler). Even though consumers are enabled to participate, Lordan (2006) argues that the consumers still are warranted. This is because the company still â€Å"reserves the right to select or to refuse the final participants† and that it is still up to the media professionals â€Å"to determine the rules, the access and, in some cases, the outcome† (p. 28). To conclude Lordan (2006) states that, if a PRO has faith in his or her profession, in a manner that he or she sees it as something â€Å"where the goal is mutually beneficial relationships between clients and audiences† (p. 9), the trend of interactivity is a concept which could enable the PROs to improve their performance instead of give away their jobs. The perception of losing control about the intended message is related to Van Ruler’s model ‘sales manager’. Van Ruler describes this model as a view which involves ‘synchronizing’ the public opinion with the organization’s opi nion. So, active influence and power are wanted to be on the side of the organization and not as Lordan (2006) states â€Å"a mutually beneficial relationship† (p. 9). Grunig’s approach can also be taken in to account. Grunig (1989) says that PR departments should work as on ‘open system’ in which there is interaction between the client (organization) and the audience. Grunig named this approach the ‘two-way symmetrical’ flow of information and gave presuppositions which highly influences a company’s behavior. Consequently it can be said that even though Lordan claims that ‘interactivity’ could work with a ‘two way symmetrical approach,’ it is quite different in reality. Namely the concept of the ‘sales manager’, the fear of losing control described by Van Ruler, is dominant. Grunig (1993) follows the idea that the ‘two-way communication’ model is quite rare in real PR practice too, by offering several examples from his analysis on international public relations- e. g. in a campaign for Lithuania, a PR, Bernays, used â€Å"many of the techniques of the public information model† as well as the two-way asymmetrical model; also Grunig (1993) mentions that throughout the 20th century many international clients of the US were supported with asymmetrical PR, â€Å" PR firms will stoop to represent the interests of dictatorships†. Grunig (1993) does suggest a possible reason for this use of PR in politics, â€Å"The majority of public relations practitioners who work for international clients enter the business because of experience in journalism, advertising or politics. Because of this background, they devote most of their efforts to media relations and lobbying typically practicing the press agentry, public information or two-way asymmetrical models of public relations†. Conclusion In this essay we went through a movement from general to specific in order to analyze whether or not the discussed PR models are valid in real-life PR practice. We started off with a basic outline of what desirable communication is (according to Stappers and Dervin), and moved on to describe Grunig’s and Van Ruler’s models and how they use communication, as well as what their similarities and differences are. From this section of the essay it can be concluded that the most preferred and ethical models are the symmetrical models, i. . the two-way symmetrical communication model and ‘the intermediary’. Through our analysis of how PR is used in real-life examples, we saw that while various asymmetric methods are used in commercial business and international PR, the ‘perfect’ symmetrical models are not really valid. A reason for this may be that PR practitioners in real-life are not necessarily educated as PR professionals, but rather come from oth er backgrounds, whether it is advertising, journalism or politics (as mentioned by Grunig, 1993). References